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Halliggye fogou

Halligye _fogou1

 

Introduction to site

‘Fogou’ is a Cornish word meaning a cave, and Cornish fogous are prehistoric underground passages constructed by excavating a trench and lining its sides with either large stone blocks or drystone walling, and then roofing it over with large flat slabs. Halliggye is a good example of a large well preserved Cornish fogou.

Access and Facilities

The site lies within the Trelowarren Estate, which is signposted from the B3293 at Garras. There is a small layby available for parking, and the site lies a short distance up a metalled track.

The site is free to visit, and is open any reasonable time in daylight hours from May until September.

It is advisable to take a torch with you into the fogou to be able to explore it fully.

There are refreshment facilities available within the Trelowarren Estate, at the New Yard Restaurant.

There are regular bus services to Garras. Visit the Traveline website for customised sustainable transport options.

Location

View our interactive Access to Monuments map to find this and other nearby sites.

More information

Halligye _fogou3There are twelve surviving fogous in Cornwall, but many more may have been ‘lost’ over the centuries and new examples are revealed from time to time. They were constructed from the 5th Century BC to the first two centuries AD, placing them in the late Iron Age and early Roman periods. Their function remains a mystery; the most plausible explanations see them as places for storage, or for refuge, or as the setting for religious or ritual activities.

Similar sites are also found in Brittany, Ireland and Scotland where they are known as souterrains, but their architecture, date range, and possibly also their function(s), differ from the Cornish sites. In Ireland, for example they may be constructed or continue in use into the mediæval period.

The majority of fogous are associated with contemporary settlements and Halliggye is no exception, being situated within the earthworks of an Iron Age farming hamlet or Round. The two concentric ramparts of the round survive best in their north-eastern quadrant and contain a broad curving ditch. The modern hamlet is largely confined within the area of the round and the fogou is situated in its north-west sector.

Halligye _fogou4The modern entrance was constructed during repair work carried out in 1980; a modern flight of stone steps leads down into the original 20m long sloping passage orientated north-west to south-east which ends in a small ‘creep’ of reduced height, divided into two parts by a doorway framed by massive stone slabs. This section originally ended in a doorway, now blocked off, which opened into the ditch, and thus provided an alternative entrance/exit to the round. Towards the far end of this straight passage a long curving side passage runs westwards for 28m towards a short south facing creep which ends in bedrock. An ‘old’ entrance is visible in the south wall of this curving passage about halfway along its length. Both passages are over 2m high in places. Precise dating of the fogou is difficult, but the evidence from pottery found during the excavations, which included local Iron Age cordoned wares and some sherds of Samian ware from southern Gaul, suggest a continuity of use from the 4th Century BC to at least the 2nd Century AD.

The fogou and the round within which it sits lies on the western slopes of a hill with panoramic views over the Helford river and beyond - a landscape rich in settlements broadly contemporary with the Iron Age and Roman occupation at Halliggye. These include other round sites which share similar hillside locations, and the very large hillfort known as Gear Camp which is sited just 1km to the northeast.

The modern-day settlement and manor of Halliggye is first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 where it is spelt 'Heligin'. The name is Cornish and means 'Place of Willow Trees'. The Vyvyan family settled at Halliggye in 1427 and in 1861 Sir Richard Rawlinson Vyvyan published a comprehensive account for the Journal of the Royal Institute of Cornwall on restoration work carried out on the fogou.

During World War II the fogou was used as an ammunition store by the Manaccan Auxiliary Unit.

Illustrations and Plans

Halligye _fogou2

Historic Environment Service Cornwall Council Plan (Johns 2005)

Related links

Sources/Further Reading