This site is no longer maintained
This website should only be accessed for School Messenger, SIS or planning agents information.

Kilkhampton Castle

Kilkhampton1

 

Introduction to site

The mediæval castle at Kilkhampton is situated to the west of the modern day village and stands on top of an elongated knoll of land with steep sided valleys falling away to the north and south and extensive views over the surrounding countryside. Castles were introduced to Britain by the Normans and represent the seats of important landowners within a mediæval feudal hierarchy. Most Cornish castles date predominantly to the 11th and 12th centuries, and although there is little documentary evidence for Kilkhampton, 20th Century excavations uncovered 12th Century pottery fragments that support this date for the castle.

Access and Facilities

The castle is under the ownership of the National Trust. There is a public footpath leading to the site from West Street leading out of Kilkhampton next to the property called 'Wildgates', although there is limited parking available along this lane. There is a car park within Kilkhampton village which is about 1km from the site.

There are refreshment and toilet facilities within Kilkhampton village.

There are regular bus services to Kilkhampton. Visit the Traveline website for customised transport options.

The site is free to visit, and is open any reasonable time in daylight hours.

Location

View our interactive Access to Monuments map to find this and other nearby sites.

More information

Kilkhampton3The settlement of Kilkhampton is first recorded circa 839 AD when the land was given to the bishopric of Sherborne by the Saxon King Egbert of Wessex. It was referred to in the Domesday Book as “Chilchetone” which incorporates the place name elements of the Cornish kylgh meaning “circle”, and the English tun meaning “farmstead, estate”. What the first element of the name refers to is not known, possibly a prehistoric feature in the area, and there is an Iron Age/Romano-British round or defended farmstead to the south-west of the town which forms a possible candidate.

By 1086 the estate was under the control of King William and passed from him to the Earls of Gloucester; Robert, Earl of Gloucester was half brother to Matilda and supported her during the civil war against King Stephen. The castle may have belonged to King William or been built by Robert during the time of civil conflict yet apparently it survived the otherwise wholesale destruction of other unlawful or “adulterine” castles following Matilda’s defeat. Alternatively, the castle could post-date the civil war and be the product of the successful inheritance of Kilkhampton by the Grenville family. They developed the mediæval market town which prospered at this time and survives so well today complete with well defined burgage plots and strip fields that stretch from the modern town in the direction of the castle.

Kilkhampton is a relatively small example of a Cornish castle but is unusual in that it has a motte with two baileys. The motte would have been accessed by a bridge leading across the ditch between the motte and the first bailey. There would have been a tall circular tower on the top made of wood or, later, stone; there are circular stone foundations on the motte summit which are probably from a stone tower. Within the baileys would have been the main domestic and administrative buildings; the number and complexity of these would have depended on the importance and size. At Kilkhampton the foundations of the main hall are visible within the inner bailey. The outer bailey appears to be devoid of any structures and may have had either wooden buildings or a different function. High wooden palisades may have topped the surrounding defensive earthworks resulting in an imposing façade. A raised causeway leads from the outer bailey eastwards through an outer series of earthworks containing a north-south rampart..

Kilkhampton would have been quite an important mediæval town and may even have had earlier prehistoric significance; there is a suggestion that a Roman road may have run through the town following the current A39. The splendid preservation of the mediæval town layout complete with its burgage plots is due to the lack of modern expansion and is possibly the best example of such within Cornwall. The town’s church boasts a fine Norman doorway and the memorial of a later member of the Grenville family, Sir Bevil Grenville of Stowe, who died leading the Royalists to victory in the Battle of Lansdowne Hill, near Bath, in 1643. 

Sources/Further Reading